GOOD ACADEMIC RESEARCH PRACTICES, SEPTEMBER 2020
Message from the Chairman
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This report gives a popular framework for boosting studies integrity through focusing on ability threats and top exercise at every level withinside the studies cycle. Typically, studies misconduct is described in phrases of fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism. However, malfeasance manifests itself in a couple of paperwork and may arise at any level of the studies cycle from the preliminary choice of the studies problem, thru to the dissemination of the studies outputs, to fellow researchers, decision-makers, and the public at large. Research Design: Good studies exercise starts offevolved with problem choice and studies layout. The proposed studies need to cope with questions, the solutions to to be able to make contributions new knowledge, resolve challenges, accurate mistakes withinside the current literature, or expand new methods for accomplishing such studies. A top studies layout includes having a welldocumented plan outlining the objectives, roles, and responsibilities. Research builds upon the paintings of others, who have to be nicely identified, and their contributions as it should be acknowledged. A top literature evaluate allows do that. It locates the proposed studies withinside the broader studies landscape, gives insights into identifying information reassets and studies methods, and lays out a rigorous and systematic method to analysing and synthesizing the proof to assist the studies claims. Conducting Research: Good documentation withinside the shape of laboratory notes, studies journals, or subject notes is treasured for maintaining song of ones studies progress. This file of the methods and tactics, consisting of statistics on information reassets, their quality, storage, and retrieval is now no longer simplest vital to report proper studies exercise however additionally to cope with questions need to worries be expressed approximately ability misconduct or veracity of results. It is the researchers obligation to avoid plagiarism, falsification, fabrication, or misrepresentation, and to record such misdemeanours if they’re found or suspected. Research integrity is likewise more suitable through accomplishing the studies in a scientific and methodologically rigorous style and cautiously drawing conclusions that may be traced to the studies. To reduce the ability for any conflicts, agreements concerning roles and responsibilities, authorship, possession of intellectual assets and different arrangements, specifically in collaborative studies, have to be clarified at the outset. Dissemination: It is the researchers obligation to disseminate the studies in full. It need to be peerreviewed and posted in high-quality forums, specifically withinside the present day scenario, with the proliferation of predatory journals. Contributions of all collaborators, funders, reviewers, and others who’ve without delay or not directly supported the studies have to be appropriatelyacknowledged. Research Management and Training: An Office of Research Integrity (ORI) can offer institutional assist and shape for developing and maintaining a lifestyle of honesty and moral studies exercise. Although, studies integrity and moral exercise are primarily based totally on universal values, the context matters. Each ORI need to expand guidelines, methods, and tactics for handling suspected and real studies misconduct. Penalties for misconduct have to be clean and welladvertised; misconduct need to be addressed directly and transparently with tact and fairness. Institution-huge studies control structures can effectively manage, song, and record on studies sports and outcomes. Supervising studies and mentoring junior students and college students is an essential position for senior researchers. The ORI has the obligation of elevating consciousness approximately the conduct of studies and presenting schooling for studies supervisors and their college students. Research integrity is important for technological know-how to thrive. The values articulated right here can shape a sound basis for a studies lifestyle that emphasizes integrity withinside the every day exercise of every researcher.
The integrity of the research enterprise rests on honesty and trust (OECD, 2015). According to the US National Institutes of Health, (Grants.nih.gov., 2018), “Research integrity includes: 4 Use of honest and verifiable methods in proposing, performing, and evaluating research. 4 Reporting research results with particular attention to adherence to rules, regulations, and guidelines. 4 Following commonly accepted professional codes or norms.” Research is, by and large, a self-regulating and self-policing process wherein researchers conduct and present their research without falsification and fabrication, giving credit to other scholars for their ideas when and where such credit is due. However, research also has aspects of competition, including an emphasis on priority claims. Prestige has become associated with research excellence and high achievement; it has become a high-value undertaking in which intellectual success frequently leads to commercial success (Stephan, 2012). It is critical for the advance of scientific research that the research community pursues novel, influential, and relevant research. Research quality, benefits, and integrity are highly interdependent. Therefore, while maintaining high research quality is vital, it is equally important that research is conducted in a culture that supports honesty and integrity to ensure the highest standards of ethical practice and behaviour. There is ever-increasing pressure to demonstrate societal or economic impact of science coupled with the potential for monetary gain. To seek even the smallest advantage, the temptation to come close to, and perhaps cross, ethical boundaries is very strong. Given the high stakes, there is concern about the stability of the ethical foundations and integrity of the research enterprise. Wellcome conducted a voluntary survey of respondents from all over the world, but mainly from the UK. The findings (Wellcome Trust Research Culture Report, 2020) indicated that researchers felt intense pressure to publish, with scant value placed on how the results were achieved. This problem of scholarly wrongdoing is
The integrity of the studies corporation rests on honesty and trust (OECD, 2015). According to the United States National Institutes of Health, (Grants.nih.gov., 2018), “Research integrity includes: four Use of sincere and verifiable techniques in proposing, performing, and evaluating studies. four Reporting studies outcomes with particular interest to adherence to rules, regulations, and guidelines. four Following generally standard expert codes or norms.” Research is, through and large, a self-regulating and self-policing method in which researchers behavior and gift their studies with out falsification and fabrication, giving credit score to different students for his or her thoughts when and wherein such credit score is due. However, studies additionally has components of competition, inclusive of an emphasis on precedence claims. Prestige has come to be related with studies excellence and excessive achievement; it has come to be a excessive-cost assignment in which highbrow achievement regularly leads to industrial achievement (Stephan, 2012). It is crucial for the development of scientific studies that the studies network pursues novel, influential, and applicable studies. Research best, benefits, and integrity are especially interdependent. Therefore, while preserving excessive studies best is vital, it is similarly essential that studies is carried out in a subculture that helps honesty and integrity to make sure the very best requirements of moral exercise and behaviour. There is ever-growing stress to illustrate societal or monetary effect of science coupled with the capacity for financial gain. To are trying to find even the smallest advantage, the temptation to return back near to, and perhaps cross, moral obstacles could be very strong. Given the excessive stakes, there’s difficulty about the stableness of the moral foundations and integrity of the studies corporation. Wellcome carried out a voluntary survey of respondents from all around the world, but especially from the UK. The findings (Wellcome Trust Research Culture Report, 2020) indicated that researchers felt extreme stress to publish, with scant cost positioned on how the outcomes had been achieved. This hassle of scholarly wrongdoing is
Compounded through the current fast growth in the range of studies guides in journals of doubtful great. Research guides the world over have grown at a compounded annual boom charge of about 3 percentage during the last two centuries (Johnson, et al., 2018:5). This boom in studies output has additionally been followed through a upward thrust in poor-great and predatory journals, and lapses in moral studies exercise (Eykens, et al., 2019). Two percentage of the scientists who have been surveyed admitted to having falsified, fabricated, or changed data (Fanelli, 2009). Retraction Watch, alongside with different comparable organizations (Oransky, 2020; WAME, 2020), purpose to, “Promote transparency and integrity in technology and medical publishing, and to disseminate high-satisfactory practices and growth performance in technology.” They maintain,“A database of retractions, expressions of challenge and associated publishing events” from everywhere in the world, figuring out wellplaced and highly-appeared researchers who have falsified or fabricated data, journals that have retracted guides due to bad peer evaluate practices, and funders that have stripped researchers in their modern funding or barred them from in search of destiny studies support (Fang, et al., 2012). It is critical to word however, that retractions are regularly acts of“real self-correction and transparency”, which serve a treasured cause in maintaining the integrity of the scholarly record (QuanHoang, 2020). Research misconduct isn’t always uncommon (Brainard and You, 2018). On the only hand, the cappotential to electronically experiment documents and with the advances in gadget learning and textual content analysis, a few components of studies misconduct together with plagiarism are becoming simpler to pick out and probably curtail. But on the alternative hand, misconduct together with data fabrication, falsification of results, mishandling of studies subjects, and conflicts of interest continue to be a good deal extra hard to locate and police. Researchers, funders, publishers, studies administrators, and different stakeholders in the studies surroundings must play a prominent position on this context. It is incumbent upon them to have clean and unambiguous regulations and tactics for making sure exact studies practices. It is similarly critical to have a governance shape to make certain that violations of exact exercise are addressed in a fair, timely, consistent, and transparent fashion. Recently, numerous efforts had been made to explicitly outline the numerous additives of studies integrity and moral exercise (See Appendix 1). Research organizations, consisting of universities, have advanced their own tips for the moral behavior of studies. Good studies exercise isn’t always a mystery, what is missing is a way of life supported through a sound governance shape to make certain that studies misconduct is rare. However, tactics and techniques to cope with the violations fairly, promptly, and effectively, if and whilst such misconduct occurs, are missing. To cope with such worries and to promote instructional integrity and book ethics in Indian universities, the University Grants Commission (UGC) created the Consortium for Research Ethics (CARE) on November 28, 2018. (UGC Public Notice, 2019). Further, UGC constituted an Expert Group on Good Academic Research Practices chaired through Professor Rakesh Bhatnagar, Vice Chancellor, Banaras Hindu University to take a look at this topic and to provide suggestions approximately regulations
And processes concerning integrity in the conduct, production, and dissemination of educational studies. This report reflects pointers fromsuchexpertsandfrom similareffortsacross theglobe. The attention of this report is on developing and maintaining studies integrity within an moral studies lifestyle. While this framework need to be operationalized locally, this report gives pointers for establishments to don’t forget for successfully improving a lifestyle of studies integrity. In particular, establishments can: four Create an ORI because the organizational entity answerable for the implementation of those tips at every institution. four Develop substances for education on studies integrity, moral behaviour, and good studies practices. This education will offer the considerable knowledge, skills, and talents for a researcher with regard to investigate integrity and ethics. The middle content material of the such education have to be obligatory with extra education substances reflecting the neighborhood context being designed concurrently and brought on the discretion of every ORI.
Values Underlying Research Integrity
The Office of Research Integrity, ORI, must promote the following values in the conduct and management of research: 4 Ethics: Research is conducted in an ethical manner ensuring dignity, rights, safety, and privacy within the researcher ecosys tem. 4 Rigour: Research ensures high quality design, reliable data, the appropriate use of methods, rigorous and careful analysis, and transparent reporting and interpretation of the results. 4 Relevance: In the endeavour of expanding the knowledge-base and understanding the environment and ecosystem, research advances the short-and long-term goals of science and society. 4 Transparency: Honesty is promoted through transparency in developing, undertaking, reviewing, reporting, and communicating research in a fair, comprehensive, and unbiased fashion (All European Academies, 2017). 4 Respect: The process of research is aligned with the norms and traditions of society and its cultural heritage, with respect for colleagues, research participants, and the environment. 4 Impartiality: Objectivity and lack of bias are the core principles of research. Researchers should avoid conflicts of interest in setting research priorities, establishing research collaborations, choosing research questions, and interpreting and assessing the implications of theresearchresults. 4 Independence: Research functions must be insulated from both the appearance and the reality of undue influence of funders or other non-researchers with a stake in the outcome of the research. To promote objectivity, researchers should be allowed independence in the design, conduct, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of the research and research findings. 4 Accountability: Research will comply with both the spirit and the letter of relevant rules and procedures such as regulations governing professional standards. The ORI will publish and make readily accessible such rules,roles, and procedures that will ensure that instances of alleged misconduct or malfeasance are rare. If and when they occur, they are effectively and promptly addressed in a fair and timely fashion with sensitivity towards the rights of all concerned. Integrity in research implies that these values permeate every aspect and are uphe